The Enlightenment and Advancement in Education


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According to Israel (2013), the ‘Enlightenment’ was the most significant and profound intellectual, socio-economic and political evolution of the Western world since the Middle Ages and the most developmental in shaping modernity. This philosophical revolution started not as a definite ‘thing’ or even as a chronological age, but as processes involved with the central place of reason and of experience and experiment in grasping and developing human society (Withers, 2008). The ‘Enlightenment’ is generally thought of as a “European intellectual movement of the late 17th and 18th centuries emphasizing reason and individualism rather than tradition” (English Oxford Living Dictionary, 2019). This period is also often referred to as ‘The Age of Reason’ to denote a time when individuals began to utilise reason to confront matters of philosophy, government, and society. The philosophical Enlightenment was intertwined with the Scientific Revolution. Guider (2015) argues that this “period was characterized by discoveries in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology, and chemistry, and these discoveries would not have been possible without the use of reason” (p. 5).

In education and educational history, the Age of Enlightenment (1680-1800) created important changes. In an effort for humans to release themselves from the dogmatism that symbolised the ‘dark Middle Ages’, during the Renaissance and Reformation periods in the West, such changes began to exert influence in both philosophy and technology (Abu‐Rabia‐Queder, 2008). This age of modernity seemingly started the move towards the Age of Enlightenment in the 18th Century Europe (Horkheimer, Adorno, & Noeri 1969/2002). In terms of describing the Enlightenment, historians have found it extremely hard to provide a fully acceptable description, but I would use the description put forward by Israel (2013) due to its conciseness. He argues that

Enlightenment is, hence, best characterized as the quest for human amelioration occurring between 1680 and 1800, driven principally by ‘philosophy’, that is, what we would term philosophy, science, and political and social science including the new science of economics lumped together, leading to revolutions in ideas and attitudes first, and actual practical revolutions second, or else the other way around, both sets of revolutions seeking universal recipes for all mankind and, ultimately, in its radical manifestation, laying the foundations for modern basic human rights and freedoms and representative democracy. (p. 7).

With that in mind, to deepen my argument and to give appropriate background on how modern universities came to be; and how the Enlightenment values that reflected education as an instrument of development and social reform remains the fundamental features of any educational system, I will trace the history of the Enlightenment Age up to today briefly by highlighting the key ideas and milestones.

During the late seventeenth century until the eighteenth century, religion was the primary means that obstructed societies from ‘Enlightenment’. Schmidt (1989), points out that religious traditions and sectarianism impedes an individual’s ability to justify the reason behind everyday events. He further suggests that the ultimate aim of the Enlightenment was to release the public from religious fears and superstitions that retracted an individual’s freedom to develop logical and reasoned thought. However, support for religious toleration was hard since the Catholic Church had a significant stake on European societies, and the public recognises the church as the government of the day (Bovey, 2015; Steinfels, 2008). During the Enlightenment Age, scientists who formed theories that the church deemed unacceptable were persecuted (Leveillee, 2011). For example, Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) and Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) were two scientists who published books that went against accepted belief, and as a result, the books were banned (Leveillee, 2011). Under the ban circumstances, Galileo was tried by the Inquisition, and was forced to recant. Until his death in 1642, Galileo was kept under house arrest. In 1938, he published Two New Sciences in Holland – a work on the foundation of mechanics and engineering (Hilliam, 2005; Finocchiaro, 1997). These scientist philosophers were among the first to consider a new way of thinking, and they brought fresh ideas that eventually transformed societies in the West. I will now begin by unwrapping the meaning of the word Enlightenment.

Enlightenment thinking in the 18th century was clearly indicated with the publication of Kant’s essay in 1784, but Lozar (2014) and Bristow (2010) think Descartes (1637) started the period while Dominiczak (2012) cites the work of Isaac Newton’s Principia Mathematica (1687). In November 1784, Kant submitted a response to the question in the journal – The Berlinische Monatsschrift posed by Johann Friedrich Zollner, a theologian and educational activist: Was ist Aufklarung? (‘What is Enlightenment?’) (Schmidt, 1989). According to Schmidt (1989, p. 269), Kant defines Enlightenment as

man’s emergence from his self-incurred immaturity. Immaturity is man’s inability to use one’s own understanding without the guidance of another. This immaturity is self-incurred if its cause is not lack of understanding, but lack of resolution and courage to use it without the guidance of another. The motto of enlightenment is therefore: Sapere aude! [Dare to know! Alternatively, Dare to think for yourself or]”Have courage to use your own understanding!”

However, what exactly was it that Kant urged humanity to know? From the above basic definition of Enlightenment, Kant introduces three crucial points. Firstly, as regards to development and immaturity, he raises the question about the importance of history. Secondly, having the freedom to make public use of one’s reason raises the question of critique, and thirdly, to make use of one’s understanding instead of depending on the guidance of others raises the question about freedom (Kant, 1793).

In education, this philosophical debate that took place during the Enlightenment Age disturbed the foundation of education in Europe and many western nations that was based on religious beliefs and superstitions. The debate had a lasting effect on education, and is now what is most often called the “quarrel of the ancients [past] and moderns [present]” (Oelkers, 2002, p. 679). The debate developed during the seventeenth century, exploded in the 1690s and was taken into the eighteenth century. Oelkers (2002) describes ‘the ancients’ as people who were in support of an education founded on “canonized knowledge, taught with textbooks and methods that drew on ancient authors, and implying that all of the knowledge needed in philosophy and science is already available” (p. 681). In contrast, ‘the moderns’ were people who actively reject an education founded on canonised knowledge, but supported an education that acknowledged that “If future learning can bring new truths, old knowledge can no longer be regarded as perfect; thus, ancient authors cannot be the masters of the present.” (Oelkers, 2002, p. 681). Oelkers also cites (Keller, 2000) that argue that “to study Plato or read Homer is not to fill the mind with eternal truths in philosophy or literature. Education must be opened to a new learning, at least in terms of research and the production of knowledge” (p. 681). Moreover, Oelkers suggests “after this historically important debate, education and learning could be connected with the open experience of modern science” (Oelkers, 2002, p. 679).

After years of a philosophical debate between the Ancients and the Modern, the ideas of Enlightenment philosophers namely John Locke (1632-1704) and Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) introduced new ideas into education. According to Gilead (2005),

For centuries it was almost unquestionably accepted that the main aim of education was to bring man closer to God. For educational purposes, man was perceived first and foremost as the son of God and the function of education was directly derived from this perception. It was commonly agreed that the central role of education was to make man pious in this world and prepare him for a happy life in the next (p. 429).

Within European Society at that time, particularly in France, Grandiere (1998) states that the year 1725 was a crucial point for French educational Enlightenment thinkers in the sense that man was disunited from the beliefs of religion and began to see “man as a member of society and no longer man as the son of God” (Gilead, 2005, p. 429). This radical way of reasoning embraced by the followers of the new educational thought helped to establish many ideas that continue to form the modern educational system today. To paraphrase the words of Grandiere (1998), the ancient religious purposes of education were being exchanged by new social goals. According to Gilead (2005), the followers of the ‘old’ movement “were increasingly concerned with the happiness of man on earth and in particular with his happiness as a member of society”, [whereas for the emerging modern thinkers, they] “placed the emphasis on the mundane aspects of human life” (p. 429).

During this period, there were opposing views on what precisely the emerging modern thinkers meant with their movement and how to achieve some of the ideas they introduced. Charles-Irénée Castel de Saint-Pierre (1658-1743) and Claude Adrien Helvetius (1715-1771), two of the leading figures of the new movement suggest that the end goal of education was to uphold the common good of society. In 1728, Charles-Irénée Castel de Saint-Pierre wrote in the first page of his book on education that “the aim of education is, in general, to make the happiness of the pupil, his parents and the other citizens much greater than it could have been without such an education” (Gilead, 2005, p. 429). Both authors alleged that education should aim at increasing the totality of happiness in society. On the contrary, Rousseau had a radically different view. He argues that the aim of education should “focused on the formation of a happy individual” (Gilead, 2005, p. 438). The former relate the purpose of education to promote the happiness of ‘individuals’ while Rousseau relates the purpose of education to promote the happiness of the ‘individual’. “In Emile [(1762)], [a book by Rousseau,] priority is given to the individual’s good and not, as in Saint Pierre and Helvetius, to the public good” (Gilead, 2005, p. 438) – what I term ‘knowledge dialectic’ – a contradiction between the humanistic and instrumental purposes of knowledge. These apparent opposing views by prominent philosophers continue to shape 21st-century education system. One can argue that just as the origins of these concepts were in tension, they are still very much present in today’s educational landscape. As argued today by some writers (Grace, 2014; Shore, 2010; Codd, 2002), the purpose of education has shifted to one that is aimed at producing raw material (knowledge and graduates), and economic opportunities for society as well as to support the personal growth and happiness of the individual.

The argument between Rousseau and other Enlightenment philosophers in particular created a new way of thinking about education. According to (Oelkers, 2002), this new way of thinking formed the idea of ‘modern education’ which can be described with three key ideas: progress, optimism, and technical knowledge. In this way of thinking, the Enlightenment faith for ‘progress’ was focused on human institutions. For example, the university because they are a place for the application of reason to human advancement (Pinker, 2018). The reformation of education during the Enlightenment based on these ideas repurpose some of the earlier limiting aspects of education. For example, that the primary goal of getting an education is to serve God. Oelkers (2002, p. 689) elaborates the meaning of ‘modern education suggesting that

`Modern’ [education] is the opposite to `traditional’ or `old’ education in every respect, and is independent from political, social or economic contexts. Thus, in 20th-century [and 21st-century] educational discourses, `modern’ [education] could embrace Bolshevist, fascist, liberal, socialist and democratic views, to name only some of its political aspects. Likewise, there have been `modern’ approaches to vocational training, general schooling, education for the handicapped, and so on. The label has only one use – to discriminate between an `old’ education that should be abandoned and a `new’ education that is seen as the only way out…Thus, today’s economic language for education has been successful in replacing the older languages of the philosophy of education because it took the lead in defining what `modern education’ is and what it is not.

The important point worth noting is that the Enlightenment thinkers philosophy was progressive for their period, and as a society, we must move past that and continuously question the state of education because of its role in the society. We (society) need to question the state of education just as the thinkers of the Enlightenment Age did. According to Oelkers (2002),

The theory of education does not need a circle of believers, only arguments that must be discussed without any warranties…critical theory of education should not refer to names, however sacrosanct they seem to be. Sacrosanct names imply two worlds, pro and con, right and left, or bad and good. It is not sufficient to use historiographical fixations; rather, we must overcome them with new and better arguments (p. 691).

Overall, Enlightenment allowed individuals the opportunity to see things for what they were, and differently; and famous words of that period such as “religious intolerance, superstition and magic were replaced by humanism, scientific reasoning and a belief in progress” (Gordon & Lawton, 2002, p. 99). That ideology, manifested today in our educational system is one of the reasons why people could argue freely over matters affecting their educational needs, personal life, and society more broadly.

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Cite: Adelekan, T. A. (2020). The Enlightenment and Advancement in Education. Retrieved from https://wordpress.com/post/temitopeadelekan.com/10612

References

Abu‐Rabia‐Queder, S. (2008). Does education necessarily mean enlightenment? The case of higher education among Palestinians—Bedouin women in Israel. Anthropology & Education Quarterly39(4), 381-400.

Bristow, W. (2010). Enlightenment. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/enlightenment/

Bovey, A. (2015). The medieval Church: from dedication to dissent. Retrieved from https://www.bl.uk/the-middle-ages/articles/church-in-the-middle-ages-from-dedication-to-dissent

Codd, J. (2002). The third way for tertiary education policy: TEAC and beyond. New Zealand Annual Review of Education, 11(2001), 31-58.

Dominiczak, M. H. (2012). Science and culture in the 18th century: Isaac Newton. Clinical Chemistry, 58(3), 655-656.

English Oxford Living Dictionary (2019). Definition of enlightenment in English. Oxford University Press. Retrieved from https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/enlightenment

Finocchiaro, M. (1997). Galileo on the World Systems: A New Abridged Translation and Guide. University of California Press. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/j.ctt1pp2jr

Gilead, T. (2005). Reconsidering the roots of current perceptions: Saint Pierre, Helvetius and Rousseau on education and the individual. History of Education34(4), 427-439.

Gordon, P., & Lawton, D. (2002). A history of western educational ideas (Vol. 65). Woburn Press.

Grace, G. (2014). Professions, sacred and profane: reflections upon the changing nature of professionalism. In M. Young & J. Muller (Eds), Knowledge, expertise and the professions (pp. 18-30). Abingdon: Routledge.

Grandière, M. (1998). L’idéal pédagogique en France au dix-huitième siècle (Vol. 2). Oxford: Voltaire Foundation.

Guider, A. (2015). Freedom of Expression and the Enlightenment (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Mississippi).

Hilliam, R. (2005). Galileo Galilei: father of modern science. New York: Rosen Pub. Group.

Horkheimer, M., Adorno, T. W., & Noeri, G. (1969/2002). Dialectic of enlightenment. Stanford University Press.

Israel, J. (2013). Democratic enlightenment: philosophy, revolution, and human rights 1750-1790. Oxford University Press.

Kant, I. (1793). An Answer to the Question:“What is Enlightenment?”. Reiss (ed)2002(54-61), 1991.

Leveillee, N. P. (2011). Copernicus, Galileo, and the church: Science in a religious world. Inquiries Journal, 3(05).

Lozar, J. M. (2014). Descartes, the Pioneer of the Enlightenment. Studia lexicographica: časopis za leksikografiju i enciklopedistiku, 7(2 (13)), 129-138.

Oelkers, J. (2002). Rousseau and the image of ‘modern education’. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 34(6), 679-698.

Pinker, S. (2018). Enlightenment now: The case for reason, science, humanism, and progress. Penguin.

Schmidt, J. (1989). Kant, Mendelssohn, and the Question of Enlightenment. Journal of the History of Ideas 50:2, pp. 269-292. University of Pennsylvania Press.

Shore, C. (2010). The reform of New Zealand’s university system: ‘after neoliberalism’. Learning and Teaching, 3(1), 1-31.

Steinfels, P. (2008). Exploring Religion, Shaped by the Enlightenment. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/11/us/11beliefs.html

Withers, C. W. (2008). Placing the Enlightenment: thinking geographically about the age of reason. University of Chicago Press.

Why use Anti-Phishing Attack Software to Ensure Cybersecurity?


Phishing

A phishing attack is a process in which an imposter or an attacker sends emails to the users at large claiming to be someone they know or belonging to a brand/ services they use. Most of these emails ask users to share their personal information such as the bank account details, credit card number and pin numbers, or other such information which can lead to identity and financial theft. The emails would also ask the users to open a link or the attached document and download a file. When the user falls prey and performs any of the said actions, the malicious virus hidden in the email will enter their computer. It will provide the attackers access to the computer and allow them to steal the information stored on it without the user’s knowledge.

Over the years, many antivirus software products, spam and malware filters have been developed to detect such emails and prevent the users from being duped. Enterprises have become a hot target for the attackers. Even if one employee in the entire organization would become a victim, the attackers could access and control the entire system of the enterprise.

Almost every enterprise has antivirus software installed along with firewalls, spam filters, and other such email security systems. Yet, a good number of phishing emails slip past the filters and end up reaching the employees. Many employees have been duped and as a result, the enterprises have suffered losses in more ways than one.

If we wonder why, the answer is quite simple. Despite the claims, the traditional antivirus software packages do not successfully detect and prevent all kinds of phishing attacks. With changing technology, attackers are creating innovative methods to slip past the security filters.

What the companies need is phishing attack software that will provide all-round protection by identifying every suspicious and fraudulent email and alerting the users. The attackers not following the old methods of sending easily detectable fake emails. Instead, they are targeting a certain section of employees with highly intelligent email techniques. It is more or less impossible for the traditional antivirus software that relies on a standard database to compare the emails to identify and detect the latest phishing attacks.

If we consider Zero Day Attack as an example, it is one of the newest phishing attacks in the market that doesn’t get detected by most software packages. On average, about 1.5 million new phishing sites and email ids are created. To keep up with the ever-increasing list of fake websites is not a solution. It takes 24-48 hours to create a signature of complex malware, while it takes less than 82 seconds for an employee to fall victim to the phishing attack.

So, we need something uses a different technique to detect fake URLs without spending hours of time on it. Only then can the employees and enterprises be saved from phishing attacks. The latest and advanced phishing attack software used artificial intelligence and machine learning algorithms to scan and recognize the hidden malicious code in the emails and alert the employees. The most common type of Zero Day attacks are-

  • Microsoft Office Marcos
    • Macros are one of the most helpful tools offered by Microsoft. With one click, the repetitive tasks can be automated, thereby saving time for the employees.
    • When the attacker sends an email attachment with an Excel or other Microsoft file, the macros are coded to install malware throughout the system.
    • Using the machine learning technology, the latest anti phishing software identifies the hidden code and alerts the users about the email be a phishing attack.
  • Malicious Links
    • Embedded links within emails make it easy for websites to share information with their customers.
    • The same feature is used by scammers. They include links that will lead the user to a fake website. The IP address and domain names are similar to the brand they impersonate making it impossible for users to detect it as fraudulent at a single glance.
    • The anti-phishing software uses computer vision technology to read the minute changes in the domain names and also checks the final page which the link leads to.
  • Infected PDFs
    • The attackers take advantage of the features offered by Adobe Acrobat to include malicious software in the PDF files and send them to their victims.
    • The phishing attack software identifies the malware and blocks the email.
  • Embedded Code
    • HTML emails allow employees to include code in the email, which will be executed when the email is opened.
    • The next-generation anti phishing software detects this hidden code and stops it from being executed.

The anti-phishing software works on any device in any location. It can be deployed throughout an enterprise within a matter of minutes.

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Underrated Link Building Tactics!


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If you wish to expand your client list and attract more quality leads, you need to market and sell your brand. Along the same line, if you aim to rank high on the search engine results pages (SERPs), you need to build links for SEO.

Some of the most popular link building techniques that have been proven effective are guest posting, link reclamation, broken link building, and content syndication, among others. While these have stood the test of time, it’s worth looking into other methods, especially since a lot of link builders have been doing the same strategies for years.

If you want to get ahead of the curve and become the best marketer out there, you need to expand your strategies and find which ones work best.

This infographic guide from Spiralytics enumerates the underrated link building techniques you can add to your SEO strategy.

Below, you’ll find methods that are equally, if not more, effective than the usual ones.

Underrated Link Building Tactics

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Six Ways to Harness Creativity like Salvador Dali [Infographic]


lightbulb-creativity

Creativity is an essential component of every industry, and businesses large and small can hone in on creative thinking to push their product or offering to new levels.

Creativity acts as a differentiator, giving companies an edge and means for innovation.

It’s the driving factor that fuels big ideas and challenges ways of thinking. So, how exactly do you foster creativity and get employees to think outside the box? Aside from rewarding creative ideas and allowing for flexible work environments, it’s important to gather ideas for creative thinking from some of the most iconic creatives to ever walk this earth.

Invaluable created a neat visual that discusses ways to harness creativity as Salvador Dali did. From experimenting often to investing in himself, there is much we can learn from the quirky yet brilliant artist. Gather inspiration from the visual below, and try new ways to unleash your creative thinking both at work and in life.

Dali

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A Complete Guide to Using Infographics for Lead Generation


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It’s no secret that lead generation is an essential cocktail in ensuring that your business will take flight. If you’re reading this article, there’s a good chance you’re thinking that you’ve already exhausted all possible efforts in attracting high-quality prospects that your brand can easily convert, but you’re still looking for creative ways to push these efforts forward. Well then, you came to the right place.

Here’s a question to start the discussion: What comes to mind when you think of infographics? Some people would say stunning graphics of visuals; others would say it’s an excellent way to get engagement. Readers are usually captivated by this content type since it combines information and aesthetic. It’s a creative way to present data without overwhelming your audience.

Infographics are so valuable to content marketers because of its proven track record in increasing site traffic and tripling social media engagement. However, it’s not often associated with lead generation—a missed opportunity.

It’s time to change this! In the infographic below, you’ll discover that it’s possible to optimize your infographics so you can reap its benefits and get quality prospects for your business. Learn how to generate leads with infographics and get ahead of the competition.

A Complete Guide to Using Infographics for Lead Generation

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Post submitted by Ushabelle Bongo – Popularly know as Shaw is a proud daughter of the Queen City of the South who has been hustling in Makati since 2016. She initially tried her hands at banking, only to be proven once and for all that her hands are made for playing with words, not handling numbers. Now Shaw is in a better place–a digital marketing paradise otherwise known as Spiralytics, where she’s making waves as a Content Specialist.

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What Your Desk Setup Says About You (Infographic)


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Building rapport with your coworkers can be essential to working productively and tackling team projects with ease. However, since our workdays are often filled with meetings, assignments, and calls, it can be challenging to make time to get to know your coworkers over lunch or a coffee break. While it’s a good idea to pay attention to the subtle ways your colleagues are communicating in conversation and nonverbally, there is another way to get to know your coworkers, just by looking at their desks.

Since so many hours of the day are spent at a desk, it’s unsurprising that they can grow to reflect the person who occupies them. Things like photographs of kids and spouses can indicate they are family-oriented, while pictures of their various travels can hint at an adventurous side. While these can spark a conversation on their own, they can also give you insight on how to work with them. For example, you may not want to send any emails to the family-oriented coworker after hours. Or, if you need some new out-there ideas for a brainstorm, ask the person with a picture of themselves hiking a mountain.

Whether you already have a great relationship with your coworkers or just starting a new job, there are insights their (workers) desks can tell you that they may never think to say to you themselves. All you have to do is decode them. To help you with translating what these desks mean, Fundera created this infographic that covers what their desks say about you and your coworkers:

what-your-desk-setup-says-about-you1

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Time Management Best Practices for the Busy Entrepreneur


Time Management Tips

Time management is an essential skill to master – whether at home or work. People always want to get things done so they can rest more comfortable when everything is over.

Questions such as where to start from, when to start, or how to start are some of the issues people face on a daily basis in the quest of finding/learning how to manage time effectively.

That said, there are some smart insights you can follow to solve the highlighted questions.

Learning this skill takes time, but following the necessary steps would ensure you acquire them. Some of the steps you should consider is learning to say ‘no’ when you have a lot on your plate already instead of jumping at every opportunity that is knocking at you. You have to be smart when it comes to what you accept and decline. Another point worth mentioning that is relating to the topic under discussion is delegation. It is imperative that a person knows how to delegate when the situation is overwhelming, this way, a person can keep tasks going without any hiccups.

These are some of the things you can take to heart and start mulling over. To know more about the best practices on time management, check out this infographic below:

Time Management Best Practices

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Tips to Boost Wifi Signal [Infographic]


How-to-Boost-WiFi-router

Whether you use the internet for work or play, it’s more or less like a culture in our world today. We expect nothing less than fast, reliable internet service but unfortunately, it’s not always the case. Most of us have experienced dead zones, slow internet speeds and long chats with tech support help. Don’t worry; you are not in this situation alone hahaha. That’s why our friends at Panda Security has put together a visual on ten ways to improve your WiFi signal. Whether physical obstacles block your WiFi router, or it needs an extender to provide internet in spotty places, this infographic has tips and tricks to boost your WiFi.

Below is an infographic which outlines how you can boost your wifi signal:

How-to-boost-wifi-signal

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Four Pillars of Brainstorming


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Whether you love brainstorming or feel intimidated by the process, it’s always great to brush up on your idea generation skills. Coming up with creative ideas on demand is no easy feat, but implementing tried and true brainstorming best practices can help make the process easier. If you’re feeling stuck during a brainstorm, consider implementing the four pillars of brainstorming, a framework created by advertiser Alex F. Osborn in the 1940s. Alex F. Osborn created the term “brainstorm” and developed four pillars that you can use when coming up with new ideas.

By going for quality, withholding criticism, welcoming wild ideas, and combining and improving ideas, you can radically transform the success of your brainstorming sessions. Check out the infographic below from our friends at Fundera that outlines the four pillars and provides actionable tips to improve idea generation. Feel free to add your suggestions in the comment box below.

Brainstorming-ideas-infographic

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24 Google Doc Hacks & Add-ons to Make Your Life Easier


Google-Hacks

Twenty years ago, collaborating with people in real-time over the internet seemed difficult to understand. Now we do it every day with the click of a button. Google Docs is a powerful tool that makes working with people both near and far a breeze, but do you know how to use it to its full capacity? Go beyond just sharing docs and leaving comments with these 24 Google Doc hacks and add-ons.

Google Hacks Infograph

Excited to save some time? With these hacks you no longer have to manually go through a document and look for duplicates or change the capitalization structure letter by letter. Though these may just seem like minor details, they will make a major difference in productivity!

To keep your files neat and organized on your computer, you can go the extra step and download Google Drive for Mac. This will save and sync your files on both your hard drive and in the cloud, so you have a backup.

You can also download the Google Doc phone application to easily view documents when you’re on the go. If you’re worried about losing internet connection and have to do a last minute edit, you can set particular documents to be available offline. Just click the three dots next to the document’s title and choose “Available offline”. These documents are automatically put in an “Offline” folder.

Staying organized is the key to managing your workload and optimizing your time, and these easy, actionable tips are sure to help you do just that.

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Edited by Temitope Adelekan